Mon National Flag

利用者:咽頭べさ

出典: フリー多機能辞典『ウィクショナリー日本語版(Wiktionary)』
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Hello welcome မ္ၚဵုရအဴ ဒုင်တၠုင်ဏာရအဴ
Welcome to Mon National Day
Flag of Georgiaこのユーザーはモン州出身です。
Translatewiki.net logo.svgThis user has an account and contributes to translatewiki.net.
Buddha meditating.gifMap of Mon Country.svg
Flag of the Mon people.png Mon Country Mon State
Mon national flag or Mon people flag Area covering Old Mon Country known in history as Hongsgwaddy or Rehmanaya, conquered by the Burmese in 1757. Mon State created by Ne Win Government in 1974, comprising Moulmein and Thatan districts.
မြန်မာဘာသာ ·ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး ·ဖၠုံလိက် ·English ·日本語 ·中文 ·中文(简体) ·中文(繁體) ·English ·한국어 ·ไทย
Music writer
Intobesa Photo
အဲနာဲဆာန်မန်I love the Mon people
Original name Intobesa (ဣန္ဒောဘာသMon language)
English name Intobesa or Vinon Jat
English surname Jat
Japanese name 咽頭べさ (Intō be sa) or 嵜本 (Sakimoto)
Japanese surname さっきもとちゃん(Sakki moto-chan)
Thai name อินตู่แพสระ(Xin tū̀ phæ s̄ra) or อุตตมะ สิทธิศักดิ์(Xuttma s̄ithṭhi ṣ̄ạkdi̒)
Thai surname อรรถมาสถิตย์(Xrrt̄h mā s̄t̄hity̒)
Korean name 인토배싹(intobaessag) or 황상무(hwang sang mu)
Korean surname 황상(hwang sang)
Arabic name في سا كن(fi sa kuna) or ماما بابي(mama baby)
Arabic surname بابي(babi)
Indian name इंटोबेसा (Intobesa) or कैटरीना मो(kaitareena mo)
Indian surname रीना मो(reena mo)
Burmese name အောင်နှင်းပွင့်(aung hnin pwint)
Burmese surname ကျော်လင်(kyaw lin)
Date of birth English 1991 October November
Date of birth Buddhism 2535 Thadingyut Thursday 9th(ဒွေ ဒွိ ပဉ္စ တယော ပဉ္စ အဿယုဇော ရဝိ န၀ ဒိဝသောMon Pali language)
Date of birth Mon 1353 Thadingyut Thursday 9th(သက္ကရာဇ်ဍုၚ် ၁၃၅၃ သၞာံ ဂိတုဝှ် မံက်၉ တ္ၚဲအဒိုတ်Mon language)
Ethnicity Flag of the Mon people.png Mon people
Gender Male
Place of birth Koh Doot Village, Lamaing Township, Ye District
Current address Kanchanaburi Province Sangkhlaburi District Nong Lu or Kanchanaburi Province Bo Phloi District Nong Kung Subdistrict
Marital status Youngman
Occupation Music translation
Education Ph.D.
University Samut Prakan Technological College (CH.Tech)
Hobbies Music•Joking•Painting•Donation help•happy person•Like to write a book•Like to read books•Like watching cartoon
Religion Buddhism
Blood type A
Height 164 cm
Weight 55.1 kg
Hair Black
Eyes Wearing glasses
Contact vinonjat2014@gmail.com
Languages used
User language
mnw-N ညးလွပ်ဏအ် နွံဗဟုသုတ ပ္ဍဲဘာသာမန် ကဆံင် အရေဝ်ဇာတိ
my-2 ဤအသုံးပြုသူသည် မြန်မာဘာသာ အတွက် အလယ်အလတ်ဗဟုသုတ ရှိသည်။
shn-1 ၽူႈၸႂ်ႉတိုဝ်းၵေႃႉၼႆႉမီး ၸၼ်ႉပိုၼ်ႉထၢၼ် ပိုၼ်ႉႁူႉၵဵဝ်ႇလူၺ်ႈဢင်းၵိတ်ႉ.
en-2 This user has intermediate knowledge of English.
ja-2 この利用者は中級日本語ができます。
zh-2 这位用户的中文达到中级水平
ko-2 이 사용자는 한국어어느 정도 할 수 있습니다.
th-2 ผู้ใช้คนนี้มีความรู้ระดับกลางเกี่ยวกับภาษาไทย
hi-1 इस सदस्य को हिन्दी का प्राथमिक ज्ञान है।
ta-1 இந்தப் பயனர் தமிழில் அடிப்படை அறிவைக் கொண்டவர்.
ar-1 هذا المستخدم لديه معرفة أساسية بالعربية.
blk-1 ကေားသုင်ꩻသားယိုနဝ်ꩻ ပအိုဝ်ႏဘာႏသာႏတာႏ ဗဟုသုတအဝ်ႏ အခေႏခံႏအရန်းသွူ။
Users by language
User Support See here[1]
Website Vinon
Blog Intobesa
咽頭べさ
咽 In 頭 Tū̀
べ Be さ s̄a
Intobesa
Translator in the following language combinations
A loop consists of a Latin A, a Hiragana a and two blue arrows lying between them
This translator translates from
English to Mon.
Template:Translator mnw-eng
Search translators

𝟏𝟎𝟎% 𝐭𝐫𝐮𝐞 𝐌𝐨𝐧 𝐡𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐨𝐫𝐲

Among the present various inhabitants of Burma, the Mon are the oldest. They arrived into Burma probably between 2500 and 1500 BC. The Mon were close cousin of Khmers, with whom they originally came down from Mongolia. Since then, they settled in some parts of Thailand, and along Tenasserim and on the Irrawaddy delta of Burma. The first strong Mon kingdom in Burma was well-known as Suwarnabhumi, The Golden Land and it had a port capital Thaton (it is still situated in Mon State as a small town), which was not so far from thet isthmian portage route; and through this window to the sea they saw India, in its full glory, united and peaceful under emperor Asoka and a flourishing centre of Theravada Buddhism. Asoka sent a mission of Buddhist monks to Suwarnabhumi and introduced Theravada Buddhisim, which improved new civilization to the Mon. The ancient monastic settlement of Kalasa, situated a few miles from Thaton and claimed by Mon and Burman chronicles, to have been founded by Asoka's missionaries, was mentioned in early Ceylonese records as being represented at a great religious synod held in Cylon (Siri Lanka) in the 2nd Century BC.

Before the establishment Burman's well-known kingdom Pagan, the Mon both in Thailand and Burma, were politically organized as the confederacy of Ramanya and embracing the three kingdoms of Thaton, Dvaravati, and Haripunjaya. Until the 8th century, the Mon kingdom was stable and expanded well relationship with Indians for trading and commerce. The expension was sudden and revolutionary but peaceful, the Indian merchant and seamen came to Thaton as friends rather than as conquistadors or colonists. The Mon also accepted Indian culture and developed their civilization.

The second wave of peoples to come into Burma after the Mon were the Tibeto-Burmans from the north. The Mon reluctance allowed the infant Burman kingdom to survive and grow. In the process the leadership of the Tibeto-Burman tribes passed to the Burmans and in 849 AD they founded their own city Pagan. In 1044, the Burmese king Anawrahta came the throne of Pagan. After he grew his power and influence, he challenged and conquered Theravada Mon in Thaton in 1057. It was a unity not by peaceful means but through force. The conquest of Pagan was the foundation of both Pagan's economy and its culture. Mon craftsmen, artisans, architects, goldsmiths, and wood-carvers-cap-tured at Thaton-were taken to Pagan to teach their skills and arts to the Burmans. Mon monks and scholars taught the Burmese the Mon Pali language and the Buddhist scriptures. The Burmans soon became scholars themselves, making Pagan the center of Theravada learning.

In 1287, Pagan fell Mongol Khan's armies. After the fall of Pagan, the Mon in lower Burma consolidated themselves and restored their own kingdom. The kingdom was initially established Martaban. near Moulmein and ruled by King Wareru. Then the capital of kingdom was transferred to Pegu (Hongsawatoi) in 1365. The Mon were achieving another golden age again under wise rulers that lasted until 1533. During one and half centuries of golden era, Pegu's Hongsawatoi Dynasty produced rulers who are still loved by the people of Burma today, and who left behind many sacred monuments. In 1531, Thabinshwehti became the Burman king of Taungoo and within a few years he conquered lower Burma from the Mon and established his capital in Pegu. After he died, his brother-in-law Bayinnaung established the second Burman empire, by occupying Shan plateau and some parts of Thailand. Later, the capital of kingdom was transferred to Ava of upper Burma and it became weak. In 1740, the Mon declared independence and reestablished their kingdom in Pegu (Hongsawatoi). The Burman capital of Ava fell to the Mon in 1752 and nearly the whole Burma became under Mon rule then.

U Aungzeya, a Burman leader who is better knownas King Alaungphaya, drove the Mon out of upper Burma from Ava and regained other lost territories. By 1757 he defeated the Mon and annexed the Mon kingdom of Hongsawatoi. The Mon have ever since become a people without a country. The conquerring Burman leader U Aungzeya persecuted the Mon by massacring over 3,000 learned Mon monks near Rangoon; by burning down holy scriptures and monasteries; by proscribing Mon language and literature; and by genocidal mass execution whereby thousands of Mon were exterminated in several stockade-inferno holocausts. Racial discrimination was rife and hundreds of thousands of the Mon fled to Siam (Thailand) for safe haven. In modern human rights terminology, it drastic was a ‘ethnic cleansing' process.

After 68 years under the rule of Burman kings, following the second Anglo-Burmese war, the entire Mon territory of lower Burma was colonized by the British in 1824. Until and except the periods they were colonized by the two alien nations, the Burman and British, the Mon had exercised full rights of self-determination for many centuries. During the periods when the Mon were master of Lower Burma, the people were happy and prosperous. Those glorious periods were expressed by western historians as golden ages under wise Mon rulers. Relations with foreign countries and foreign nationals were peaceful, cordial and harmonious. They blended their native culture with Theravada Buddhism which elevated them as teachers of their neighbours in Southeast Asia.

The British administration based on modern democracy and capitalism superseded the Burmese autocratic feudalism, which treated other ethnic nationalities who were under their domination as serfs. The peaceful situation during the British reign gave an opportunity for most of the ethnic non-Burman refugees who fled the ruthless brutal oppession of the Burman kings to neighbouring countries, to return to Burma.

The British during the process of annexing Burma, persuaded the Mon to rebel against Burman, while they were attacking the Burman who were oppressing the Mon as slaves. An excerpt from the proclamation by the British commanding officer, Sir Archibald Campbell, written in the book entitled "The Making of Burma" by Dorothy Woodman says: "Choose from amongst yourselves a Chief, I will recognize him." The promise was never honoured but instead the first Commissioner Mr. A. D. Maingy was appointed to administer the Mon dominated areas of Ye, Tavoy, Mergui and Tenasserim after incorporating them into the British Empire. This behaviour of the British infuriated the Mon very much, and they pledged to oust British rule from Burma in collaboration with the Burman and other ethnic victims of imperialism.

Through the anti-colonial struggle to free Burma from the yoke of the British imperialism, the Mon worked together with their indigenous brethren up to the end of World War II. But when independence for Burma from the British was in the offing, the Mon asserted their identity and right of self-determination. Some Mon cultural and political organizations such as All Ramanya Mon Association, United Mon Association and Mon Freedom League were formed by Mon leaders and asked the Burman leaders to recognize their identity. But the demand was flatly rejected by the Burman leader U Nu, who was the Prime Minister then. He claimed that "the Mon and the Burman were identical and so there was no reason for the Mon to crave for a seperate ethnic identity". This refusal to recogniże their primary demand created the Mon national upsurge, and resulted in an escalation of their demand to reclaim their old homeland which covers the whole of lower Burma.

In signing the Aung San-Atlee agreement for independence of the whole Burma, the Burman leadership approached the frontier ethnic nationalities to join the Union of Burma at Penglong in Shan State. An agreement came out to safeguard racial equal rights of the ethnic nationalities and establish a Federal Union, but the Mon, the Karen and the Karenni were not participants of the Penglong Agreement. After the death of Gen. Aung San, the succeeding Burmese leaders twisted the agreement by writing a constitution based on a unitary system concen- trating the executive administrative power in the central government in Rangoon.

The Mon's demand for the creation of a Mon State which covers lower Burma was rejected again and the repressive action was also taken against them by the ruling Burman leaders. Some Mon leaders were assassinated and many were imprisoned. More than 100 Mon villages were also burnt down and destroyed by the Burmese Army. These repressive measures pushed the Mon to take up arms and continue their struggle for racial rights by means of armed struggle in the wake of Burma independence in 1948. Initially, under the leadership of Mon People's Front (MPF), the Mon armed struggle had been carrying on until 1958. In July 1958, MPF agreed with the then U Nu's parliamentary government to transform itself as legal Mon freedom struggle under the democratic system. The democratic government of U Nu was abol- ished the Burmese Army led by Gen. New Win in a coup d' etat in 1962 and since then the country was ruled by a military dictatorship. The Mon armed resistance movement was continued by the New Mon State Party (NMSP) which replaced the outgoing MPF. The Mon armed struggle under the leadership of NMSP has continuously fought against the single-party rule of Gen. Ne Win-led Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) and the present military regime, State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) for nearly four decades.

The NMSP has modified its claim to five districts of lower Burma, namely, Pegu, Thaton, Moulmein, Tavoy and Mergui Districts to be formed as Mon State. It has passed through several phases of different political changes during the Mon armed struggle of the five decades against the ultra-nationalist Burman governments. In 1974, the Burman leadership led by Gen. Ne Win created the nominal Mon State covering Thaton and Moulmein districts to appease the Mons. In 1982, NMSP became a member of the National Democratic Front (NDF) which is an umbrella organization for al non-Burman ethnic nationalities resisting Rangoon governments for self-determination.

The economic deterioration, the demonetization of currency and the discontent with human rights abuses culminated in the world-re- nowned demonstrations of the students, monks and civilian masses in 1988, demanding democray, free elections and an end to the single- party rule. State power changed hands three times and just when the general will could no longer be contained, thousand troops were called in and thousands of demonstrators were massacred and thousands arrested. As a result of the militaryjunta's violent repression, thousands of students, monks, intelligentsia, political leaders, military personnel and ordinary citizens fled to the liberated areas controlled by members of NDF. With the initiatve of NDF, a wider representative organization under the name of the Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB) was formed including the ethnic Burman opposition groups in and out of the country.

Thailand has changed its policy towards Burma. It is adamant that the civil war in Burma should come to an end. Thailand, with its policy of "Constructive Engagement" to Burma, does notneed the Karen, Karenni and Mon areas as a buffer between her and Burma. It has hoped that peace in Burma will favour Thai commercial interests for quick profit and help stem the increasing flow of refugees from Burma. It has put constant pressure on NMSP and other ethnic non-Burman armed opposition groups along its border to enter into a cease-fire deal with SLORC and end the war. At the same time, the military regime SLORC was offerring the many ethnic armed opposition groups including NMSP, asking them to enter into a cease-fire agreement with it. NMSP entered initial ceasefire talks with SLORC in late 1993. In mid-1995, it reached a ceasefire agreement with SLORC. Still the ceasefire agreement is not a political solution of Burma and the Mon do not obtain any rights from the present NMSP ceasefire with SLORC. The human rights situation in Mon region has not improved despite the NMSP-SLORC ceasefire. The political activities of NMSP have been under constant pressure and disturbance by the military regime SLORC. The deterio- rating situation following the NMSP-SLORC cease-fire agreement has led to to formation of a new political forum for the Mon people. In early 1996, the Mon Unity League (MUL) came into existance as a common Mon united front.
အလာံဂကူမန် Mon national flag
If you want to know about my history the link I gave it, try to open it, If someone is interested, I write for.
I welcome everyone my effort is that I only want to help Wikipedia, most of the time I would like to help Mon people more and want to write about Mon history. but I have a few problems because I can't not write beautiful texts the cause of my problem is that I have poor eyesight.
မ္ရဵုရအဴ Hello


カンチャナブリでの戦いと涙

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  • 第二次世界大戦は1945年に終わり、それからほぼ半世紀が経つ。クワギ河鉄橋に爆弾を投下するため、連合軍は1944年11月28日にB29とB24を送り込んだ。戦争は更に9カ月間長引いたが、連合軍はついに日本軍に勝利した。1945年8月15日に天皇は連合軍に無条件降伏し、軍隊に武器を捨てるよがに命じた。

いず橋にせよ、戦争は大変な物質的、精神的破壊を残し、世界中の人々に痛烈な衝撃を与えた。戦争は一握りの権力欲に取り悪かれ、思慮分別を失った人々の行為の結果であった。彼らは、他の人間の辛苦を考えずにこれら全てのことをしたのだ。 カンチャナブリ県にある連合軍の共同幕池はそうした大戦の結果である。亡くなった兵士の遺族たちは「死の鉄道」の建設中に死んだ兵士に敬意を表するためよくこの墓地を訪れる。この大きなクワイ河鉄橋を作るために多くの捕虜が集められた。建設中の死者の数はあまりにおびただしく、鉄道の下の枕木の数に例えられた。これ故にこの建造物は「死の鉄道」と名付けられている。 50年前多くの国々から連れられてこられた捕虜たちはまだ若かった。死後、彼らはこの共同慈地に埋葬された。彼らの慕は整然としている。大理石でできた各々の慕石には、名前、階級、管区、年齢、国籍、そして宗教が記されている。幕地は色とりどりの花で飾られており、管理人によって手入れが行き届いている。残酷な戦争は過ぎ去り、美しく穏やかな環境で埋葬されて、彼らの魂は安らかに眠っているに違いない。 時は経っているが、なお多くの訪問者が慕に花を供ま、悲しげにカードに書かれた詩を読んで、涙ぐむ姿が見られる。長い時間が経っているが、遺族や亡くなった人々を愛する人間は妄想的で、残酷好きで、強欲な人々によってなされた戦争が、どのようにしてあのような破壊を引き起こし得たかを決して忘れはしない。大戦は、愛、哀れみ、寛大さ、平和、そして社会的正義までなきものとしたの第二次世界大戦中カンチャナブリに眠る死者たちの上に築料かれた死の鉄道死の鉄道は、ノンブラドゥック駅からカンチャナブリへ走り、そしてクワイ河の上を鉄橋で横切り、ビルマのダンチェディソモン、タンビューザヤットへと続いている。この鉄道が何千何百という人種・国籍宗教の異なった人々の命を落とす原因となった。木から落ちる枯れ菓のように不幸にも死んでいった男たちの死休は線路わきの土手の上に積み重ねられた。飢えと痛み、病気という絶望のうちに、彼らは死んだ。これはタイとビルマの境での悲しい出出来事であった。1941年12月8日の明け方、日本軍はタイの各地に上陸じた。例えばサムットブラカーンのバンブー、ブラチュ。アブキリカン、チュポーン、スラターニー、ナコソシータラート、ソンクラー、バタニーのような所である。タイ東部では、別の日本軍がブランチブリ県のアランヤブラテットへ進軍した。その後陸軍元帥でもあったビブンソングラーム首相率いるタイ政府は日本軍がこの国を通り抜ける要求に応じ、1941年12月21日に日本軍との友好協定に署名した。日本軍はその協定でタイ王国の主権と独立の尊重を約東した。日本軍は当時英国の植民地であったインドを占領するために、タイをビルマへの通路として使用するつもりだった。1942年8月8日、日本軍とタイ政府は後にビルマへの「死の鉄道」と呼ばれる鉄道の共同建設の協定を締結した。タイの日本軍代表者、セジ・ポリア将軍とビブンソングラム元帥は、協定に署名した。「死の鉄道」の建設が1942年10月、日木軍の監督の下に始まった。その線路の軌間の標準寸法は1メートルで、タイからビルマまでの約300キロメートルの距離を走っていた。その鉄道は3000トンの生活必需品や戦略上の物資を運ぶことになっていた。この鉄道の建設はタイのラーブリー地方、バンポン地区のナンプラダク鉄道駅に始まった。現存する南方鉄道の支線であるこの鉄道はカンチャナプブリ地区を通り、北上して、マカン準地区にあるクワイ河を渡っていた。そして線路はクワイ河の支流であるクワイノーイ河の岸に沿って通り、そしてこの支流を横切り渓谷の中に向かった。鉄道は小川を横切り多くの危険な野獣のいる密林の、険しい岸壁のある山を越えていった。鉄道はビルマ領土の鉄道に連結される前にダンブラチャディサムオンのタイ国境で終わっていた。ビルマの線路の建設はシモダ解軍の指揮のもと、日本軍によって引き受けられ、シモダ将軍は全体の建設の監督をした。ビルマの線路はムアンイーとマラマインの間に位置しているタンビューザヤットから始まる。 その日本人の陸軍大将は、その地域で凧われた現地労働者の指揮をとり、第2、第5、第6鉄道部門を管理する立場にあった。これは筆舌に尽くしがたいほど困難極まりない任務だった。責任感の強い軍人だったシモダ将軍は個人的にその地域の地形を調査したが、不幸にも飛行機が密林で墜落し、彼は消息を絶った。この死の鉄道の建設のために日木軍はマラヤ、シンガボール、ジャワ及び他の太平洋地域から6万1700人の捕虜を連れてきて、1942年から1945年にわたり強制労働をさせた。この抽虜たちの中には、3万人のイギリス人と2万8000人のオランダ人と1万3000人のオーストラリア人と700人のアメリカ人がいた。戦争捕虜たちは集められて、列車でタイとビルマまで輸送されていた。 戦争捕虜たちに加えて、この鉄道の建設のために集められた10万人以上もの他の受用者たちもいた。計画どおりに鉄道の建設を完成させるという目的のため、日本の陸軍は可能なあらゆる所から新兵たちを集めた。この「死の鉄道」建設は、カンチャナブリの町の4キロメートルほど北にあるクワイ河の岸まで進んだとき、たいへん難しい問題に直面した。河に橋をかけなければならなかったのだが、この地点では、川幅が広く、流れが速かったのだ。この橋の建設は、戦争捕虜と労働者たちの労働力に頼らなければならなかった。なぜなら設備や機械や労働を節約する工夫が不足していたからである。またこのため、作業は困難を極めた。戦争捕虜たちは休日もなしに1日に16時間働かなくてはならなかった。彼らには1年にたった1度の休暇があった。つまりその休暇とは、日本の天皇誕生日だった。初期症状程度のマラリアにかかった人でも、捕虜たちはどんな例外もなく強制的に働かされた。彼らは熱が更にひとどくなり、意識不明で倒れるまで働かなければならなかった。第二次世界大戦中にカンチャナブリで死の鉄道の建設をしていた戦争捕虜たちにとって仕事場から運び出されることは、一時の休息を意味していた。その当時、次のような文句がよく言われた。あの枕木の一つひとつは戦争捕虜一人ひとりの命が犠牲になっている、と。「死の鉄道」の建設は、1943年の8月に完了し同年の10月25日に実用化された。それは、日本軍の、偉業であったが、偶然にも戦争捕となった同胞の人達の苦しみの上:に築かれたものでもあった。その苦しみとは、計り知れないほどの強い権力欲を持っていた一握りの人達が同じ人間としての仲間に対していかなる慈悲をも示さなかったことから生じていた。 戦争捕虜たちの、労働と犠牲によって作られた「死の鉄道」の全長果設は、415キロメートルでそのうち111.05キロメートルは、ビルマに作られた。この鉄道が完成した後も3万2000人の戦争捕虜たちは線路を維持する仕事に従事しなければならなかった。 1945年8月15日、日本国天皇が連合軍に対して無条件降伏をし、日本軍は武器を放棄するように命令を下したとき、「死の鉄道」は公式に閉鎖された。戦争はほんの一握りの人の利己主義により勃発したのだが、多くの人々に多大な損失をもたらし戦争は国家とともに人の命や財産をも滅ばしてしまった。人生における大きな損失のために涙にくれたのは、戦争捕虜たちの父であり、母であり、妻や子供たちであった。死の鉄道やクワイ河鉄橋は、人類の憎しみの象徴というよりも、戦争の最後のいましめとなるべきである。最後に、全世界の人々に平和が訪れんことを。