利用者:Akaniji/Wiktionary:用例

出典: フリー多機能辞典『ウィクショナリー日本語版(Wiktionary)』
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Index to templates 雛形の目次[編集]

Various templates are in use in order to facilitate adding heavily-quoted authors. See /Templates for a complete list of these.

用例の転載元として頻繁に利用される書籍は、雛形が用意されており、簡単に書誌を示すことができます。雛形の一覧は/雛形をご覧ください。

How to choose a quotation どんな用例がいいのか[編集]

Ideally, quotations should be chosen that:

  1. Illustrate the meaning by surrounding context,
  2. Extend the time range that we have quotations for, or fill long time gaps,
  3. Show a variety of contexts that a word is used in, and
  4. Show a variety of genres, regions, and registers that a word is used in.

(In practice it's usually a lot of effort to meet all these goals at once, but that's the ideal.)

次のような用例が望ましいです。

  1. 前後関係から語意を例証する用例
  2. 用例の時間的な幅を拡げる用例(昔の用例)。または、時間的な間隙を埋める用例(大昔と現在の間の用例)。
  3. その語を用いた様々な用例
  4. その語が用いられる様々な分野、地域、言語使用域がわかる用例

(以上の目的を全て満たすことが望ましいですが、実際には大変骨が折れます。あくまでも理想です)

All quotes should be from works in the language of the word in question, followed by an English translation when appropriate. If a word is one which is known to have been coined in a specific work in another language (such as robot) then the information should go in the etymology section rather than the quotations section.

Quotes should only be from date-able printed source, except for in the case of earliest usage where reliably date-able electronic sources (e.g. Usenet) can be used.

When attesting terms, it is better to cite sources that can be easily verified, providing the ISBN or other useful source information. As Wiktionary is an online dictionary, this naturally favors web-based media such as Google Books, periodicals indexed online, Wikisource, and Usenet. See a list of searchable archives.

How to format a quotation 用例の書き方[編集]

There are three types of format in practice now, as outlined in the three subsections of this section. You may choose whichever you think is best fitted, but some of the regular contributors adhere closely to one or the other.

3種類の書き方があります。このうちの、お好みの書き方でどうぞ。常連の執筆者の中には、どれかひとつに固執する人もいますが、気にしないでください。

Quotations should at all times be ordered from earliest to the most recent.

最古~最新の全ての時代の用例が歓迎されます。

Between the definitions 各語意の直後に書く[編集]

See also Wiktionary:Entry layout explained#Example sentences and Help:Example sentences.

If you put the quotations amid the definitions, remember to put them under the appropriate one. This format is most used for a limited number of quotations (one to three). Consider any of the other formats for longer lists.

This is the desired format for these:

  1. First definition
    • Year, Author, Source title, Publisher, pages #–#:
      First quotation of word.
      Translation [if applicable]
    • Year, Author, Source title, Publisher (publication date of later edition), page #:
      Words of second quotation.
  2. Second definition
    etc.

Which is in raw code:

# First definition
#* '''Year''', Author, ''Source title'', Publisher, pages #–#:
#*: First quotation of '''word'''.
#*:: Translation [if applicable]
#* '''Year''', Author, ''Source title'', Publisher (publication date of later edition), page #:
#*: '''Words''' of second quotation.
# Second definition
#: etc.


Please note:

  1. When quoting a short poem, article or other short work, double quotation marks ("Title") instead of italicision by two apostrophes (''Title'') should be used on the title of that work.
  2. Type faces should be as indicated. The year is always in bold face, the title of the work in italics or, for shorter works, quotation marks.
  3. The illustration shows the marks that will ensure proper indentation.
  4. No blank lines are included within these entries. Blank lines in a numbered list will cause the numbering to be re-started.
  5. In the quotation itself the word being illustrated should be in boldface.
  6. If applicable, provide a wikilink to Wikipedia (format: [[w:name|]]) for the author, a wikilink to Wikisource (format: [[s:title|]]) for the work. Please make sure the links point to the relevant pages on the other projects.
  7. The year should be that of the earliest edition known to use the word. Where practicable, the page number should be taken from the first edition, but if a later edition is used (found in a library or digitised by Google Books, etc) then the publication date should be added in parentheses after the publisher’s name.
  8. If the quotation can be read online, the page number should be wikified as a link to the online source (note: under dispute). Links within the dictionary entry can always be provided with ISBN numbers.
  9. Quotations should be listed in order of first use of the word being illustrated.
  10. Generally, the quoted text itself should not contain links. In fact, some/many/most editors think that the quoted text, like example sentences devised by editors, should never contain links. (Note: This is currently under discussion on this page's talk page.)

An example, taken from gully:

  1. (Scotland and northern UK) A large knife.

The 1913 Webster Dictionary uses quotes but shows only the quote and the surname of the author, in that order. The specific work and year is listed for some authors at Wiktionary:Abbreviated Authorities in Webster, but for others it will need to be researched and added, and that is tedious, painstaking work. Using Wikisource or Google Books may help significantly. Expanding the information on these quotes would help Wiktionary’s credibility, but it is not mandatory. Simply put what you have in the proper order, and someone else can research the added details. In absence of any information about the author or work, consider paraphrasing the quote as an example sentence instead.

Formerly, quotations were formatted with the quotation itself between the year and author. This has been changed to accommodate the use of templates for frequently quoted works. You will also find older additions having “Quotations:” before the actual quote. This has also become obsolete, and they can be safely removed.

Under a Quotations header 用例節を設ける[編集]

Longer lists of quotations may find a more appropriate place in a separate section, as they would hamper readability for people only interested in the definitions.

The appropriate section title is “Quotations”, a level four heading. Please place the section under the relevant part of speech. Avoid commingling quotations for different parts of speech. Also make sure you select appropriate quotes here, that are not ambiguous towards the definitions.

The format is largely the same:

====Quotations====
* '''Year''', Author, ''Work title'', Publisher, page #:
*: First quotation of '''word'''.
*:: Translation [if applicable]
* '''Year''', Author, ''Work title'', Publisher (publication date for later edition), page #:
*: '''Words''' of second quotation.
etc.

It may also be helpful to show a {{timeline}} of the dates.

Subpages 用例名前空間に書く[編集]

In the case of many quotations and references, a subpage should be created in the Citations namespace. See Wiktionary:Citations for more information. Any quotations left within the entry for illustration would be a subset of those on the citations page.

Which date to use[編集]

The date corresponds with original authorship, the time that the citation was put into the exact words quoted. Usually this will be approximated as the first year of publication. For a work published posthumously, the date is ante the year of publication. Preferably the work is a first edition, but otherwise the date of the edition should be placed in the edition section. In contrast, for quotations of translated works, where the translator is noted before the author, the year of translation is stated first. This is true even for borrowed or transliterated terms.

The use of abbreviations[編集]

In most cases abbreviations should be avoided unless their usage is almost universal. Those listed below are permitted.

一般的でない略語は用いないでください。次の略語はOKです。

  • In place of an authors name
    • anon = anonymous author
  • After an author’s name
    • ed. = editor
    • tr. = translator
    • et al. = et alia = and others
  • Before a year
    • c. = circa or about
    • a. = ante or before
    • p. = post or after

Debated authorship[編集]

In a work of which there is mainstream debate (so for instance “Funeral Elegy” would be mainstream debate, but not the first folio of Shakespeare) about who the author is this should be indicated either by listing the suspected authors, or by listing the most likely author and placing the phrase (uncertain) after the authors name.

Spelling and typography[編集]

The reason for including a quotation is because it demonstrates that the word being defined is (or was) used with that meaning. This means that the primary aim when reproducing the quote is to reproduce the meaning as faithfully as is possible.

It isn’t always possible to reproduce everything about the source on Wiktionary, particularly with older printed works. For these occasions the following rules of thumb should be taken as a guide.

For auditory sources, not discussed below, some interpretation of intent is unavoidable.

In all cases though it is a judgement call for the individual editor to make regarding the individual quotation with which they are working, although it is important to try and be consistent as possible within the same entry.

Spelling[編集]

Reproducing the spelling is important as some variations in spelling can drastically affect the meaning, for example breath and breathe are different words. As Wiktionary has separate entries for different spellings of the same word (e.g. colour and color) it is vital that the spelling of the word being defined is reproduced.

Diacritics[編集]

The presence or absence of diacritics, and which diacritic(s) are used is important to copy accurately. The presence or absence of a diacritic ranges from a matter of stylistic choice which doesn’t affect the meaning at all, through shades of meaning, to being completely different words. For example:

  • English cliché and cliche, are identical in meaning and connotations.
  • In British English a café is usually a higher class establishment than a cafe
  • In English the noun exposé is a different word from the verb expose

Where a diacritic cannot be represented by Unicode characters, the nearest representation that can be shown should be used. If there is a standard convention for the language and/or character in question then this should be followed.

Ligatures and archaic letters[編集]

When rendering modern English texts with ligatures and archaic letters, as a rule of thumb reproduce the following if they appear in the source text:

For other characters, reproduce them only if you think they affect the meaning. Otherwise substitute appropriate modern characters.

For other languages, the importance of reproducing ligatures and other characters not used in modern English or the modern character set of that language varies. If you are uncertain, ask others their opinion in the Tearoom or on the talk page of the “About” page for that language (e.g. Wiktionary talk:About Greek).

As with diacritics, where a letter or ligature cannot be represented in Unicode, the nearest symbol that can be shown should be used. If there is a standard convention for the language and/or character in question then this should be followed.

Punctuation and spacing[編集]

Generally it is important to reproduce the punctuation of the source accurately, as this can greatly impact the meaning. (Compare “Eats shoots and leaves” with “Eats, shoots and leaves”.)

The number and width of spaces between words or sentences does not normally alter the meaning at all and so while we do normally try and be faithful, it is not wrong or unusual to use just a single ASCII space when reproducing them on Wiktionary.

Some older works include a (narrow) space before punctuation marks such as colons and semi-colons or between dots of an ellipsis. There is no policy on whether to include these or not, and so it is the individual editor’s choice. When they are included, use a standard width non-breaking space   as in the example below:

For some reason old books sometimes have a space before a semi-colon ; like this

Line breaks 改行[編集]

The importance of line breaks to the meaning of the text is dependent on the type of work. Where it is important to reproduce them, the “” or “/” characters can be used,

  • 1671, John Milton, Paradise Regained:
    […] / Should kings and nations from thy mouth consult, / Thy counsel would be as the oracle / Urim and Thummim, those oraculous gems / On Aaron's breast, or tongue of Seers old / —

or

  • 1995, Joe Simpson, This Game of Ghosts, The Mountaineers Books, ISBN 0898864607:
    As Mark came out of the bathroom, I remembered my underpants. ¶ ‘Hey Mark, have you got my shreddies?’

Prose[編集]

The line breaks in the body text of a work of prose are almost always inconsequential to the meaning of the words. This is because they would occur in different places if the work were printed on different sized paper, in a different text size or in a different typeface. For this reason it is not usually important to render line breaks.

Where explicit line breaks are used in prose, for example to distinguish different speakers in a conversation, they should be reproduced.

Poetry[編集]

In a poem, the line breaks are often an important part of the work. For example the verse structure, rhyming and or syllable patterns are often dependent on the line breaks. Normally therefore it is appropriate to reproduce all the line breaks in a poetic work. However where a long work has very long verses (for example epic poems) it will often be important just to denote the breaks of verses (although it would be unusual to require more than part of one verse of such a work for citation purposes). Which of these applies to the work is a judgement call for individual editors.

Headlines and titles[編集]

In all works, the headlines and sub-headlines of works are often chosen with a view to them fitting in the space available, and choosing where to break a line can have an impact on the importance placed upon certain words. It is a judgement call for the individual editor whether this was the case for the (sub-)headline in question, but where it was then it should be reproduced.

Hyphenation[編集]

Where a work uses hyphenation for words split across lines, these should normally only be reproduced where the line breaks are explicit (for example some words are purposefully split for rhymes or poetic meter).

The only exception to this is where the word being defined is hyphenated in this manner. In this case it should not be reproduced, but it should be noted in a HTML comment that the word was split across lines in the original. Where the word has alternate hyphenated and non-hyphenated spellings, where possible it is almost always best to cite from works where the word is not hyphenated for a line-break.

Stylized text[編集]

If a word or phrase appears boldfaced in the original text, then do not replicate the styling since boldface is used to highlight only the headword. Leave an HTML comment indicating the original styling, even if only the headword is boldfaced in the original.

If emphasis is needed, also note any substituted styling, for instance:

A ''defined term''<!--bold instead of italics--> is defined as such.

If a word or phrase appears italicized in the original text, then replicate that styling. If the entire quotation must be italicized, leave a comment indicated that this is the correct intent. Other stylized text may be replicated or noted as best as possible.

Typography[編集]

Generally you should reproduce most typography as it is in the source, although this is less important than for the spelling and punctuation.

As a rule of thumb the style of quotation marks and apostrophes (straight " or curly “) used in the original should always be used on Wiktionary, as should dashes (-- vs —), and any other typography that has an impact on the meaning of the words.

Where it is not possible or not easy to reproduce the typography using standard Unicode characters or simple HTML formatting then do not attempt to do so using other methods. If it is important to the meaning, then you should note in a comment how it is formatted in the original.

See also[編集]